All serves are different, aren't they? (Part 2, power producing phase)

The power producing phase.

Forward swing

  • Legs/back hip drive 'up' as ball comes down, causing racket to drive down as racket drops as shoulder externally rotates; at point of full-external rotation (lowest part of racket drop, hips are still side-on to fence)
  • Elbow & hand stretch and climb throwing top of racket towards the ball
  • Ball placing arm begins to lower towards stomach area assisting in shoulder over shoulder rotation
  • Racket face turns underneath the ball prior to impact

Impact point

  • Both legs off ground at impact
  • Impact always as ball is dropping
  • Impact 12-1pm (in line with left foot RH)
  • Impact 10-50 cm in front of baseline
  • Both hips and shoulder parallel to net near pronation stage (just prior to impact)
  • Tossing arm tucked into stomach

Follow through

  • Pronation occurs after impact to help prevent shoulder loading
  • Front foot lands just inside baseline
  • Beck leg stays behind pointing to back fence
  • Ball placement arm moves away from stomach to a sideways on position

A few further notes

  • 40% power comes from internal rotation, 30% from wrist flexion, 30% from leg drive
  • Front foot drives 70%, back foot 30% BUT back foot is more important because it drives back hip 'up'
  • Pronation has nothing to do with power, it just helps ball direction
  • Chopper grip permits the best range of movement in external rotation (racket head drops down and away from body), internal rotation, elbow extension, pronation and wrist flexion
  • Grip pressure only increases just prior to contact